This rapid change in climate was not immediately registered in the nature of the vegetation. At Loch of Winless, Caithness, the Lateglacial vegetation was grassland and tall-herb communities, with abundant Cyperaceae and a variety of open ground herbs (Peglar, 1979; Birks, 1993). In west Mainland, a sparse vegetation of dwarf shrub heath and arctic-alpine communities developed (Bunting, 1994). Towards the end of the Interstadial (between ca. 11.5 and 11.14 14C ka) there was a decline in temperature which heralded the onset of the Loch Lomond Stadial. After 11 14C ka the climatic decline intensified and arctic conditions became established. The Loch Lomond Stadial in Scotland saw renewed glacier growth, the return of tundra plant communities, widespread slope instability and erosion and the return of polar waters. On Orkney, the end moraines at Enegars Corrie and at Dwarfie Hamars mark the formation of corrie glaciers at this time. The associated equilibrium line altitudes are as low as 150 m OD. These glaciers therefore formed at some of the lowest elevations in Scotland and point to the severity of the Stadial climate. In Caithness, there was widespread solifluction of glacial deposits and frost shattering during the Loch Lomond Stadial (Hall, 1989). The contrast between the degree of development of scree slopes within and beyond the moraine in Enegars Corrie suggest that widespread frost action and mass movement occurred on Hoy at this time (Sutherland, 1993). On West Mainland erosion of soils around small basins increased after 11 14C ka and the vegetation became sparser and more herb-dominated, with species such as Artemisia indicating disturbed surface conditions (Bunting, 1994). After 10 14C ka however grassland communities returned and rates of erosion declined at the start of the Holocene period.