Mill Bay, Stronsay
Significance: this coastal section provides perhaps the best available exposure of the shelly till which is characteristic of the eastern part of Orkney. The nearby section at Bomasty (illustrated bellow) displays similar material.

Shelly till at Bomasty

The section at Mill Bay (HY 665256) forms a continuous cliff 6-10 m high over a distance of nearly 1 km (Gordon in Hall, 1996). The famous geologists Ben Peach and John Horne visited in 1879, just prior to the start of their work in the NW Highlands. Peach and Horne recorded for the first time a reddish-brown, gritty clay containing striated stones and broken shells and the site was of key importance to their 1880 paper on the glaciation of Orkney.

Peach and Horne

Where did the material in the till come from?

The till mostly includes material from adjacent Devonian flagstones and siltstones, but a range of exotic rock types was also recorded, including igneous and metamorphic lithologies, fossiliferous limestone, chalk, flints and fossil wood. A wider range of glacial erratics has recently been collected from Stronsay by Brown and Hall. The assemblage is illustrated separately . The stones include at least one rhomb porphyry from the Oslo region, together with gneiss, granite, quartzite, porphyry and other rocks of Highland or Norwegian origin, plus limestone and fossil wood of probably Carboniferous age from the central lowlands of Scotland and Mesozoic chalk, flint, conglomerate, shale and glauconitic sandstone from the inner Moray Firth. Peach and Horne (1880) inferred that the erratics were derived from the Scottish mainland, including eastern and NE Scotland, and the floor of the Moray Firth and North Sea. To this can now be added a component of Norwegian origin. The mixed assemblage is entirely consistent with ice moving across the North Sea bed (Bradwell et al, 2008) and picking up a range of material deposited there by earlier movements of ice and icebergs. The ultimate source of the ice that deposited the shelly till at Mill Bay thus remains uncertain.

Numerous fragments of shells, including Arctica islandica, Mytilus and Mya truncata, are present in the till, generally broken, smoothed and striated. Striations on bedrock at Mill Bay are aligned W15-35˚N (Gordon, 1993).

The lithological composition and erratic and shell content of the Mill Bay till clearly indicate that ice moved onshore from the east (Peach and Horne, 1880; Rae, 1976) in accordance with the general pattern established for the Orkney Islands.

How old is the till?

Rae (1976) obtained an infinite radiocarbon date of >44,300 BP (T-1152) from shell fragments in the till. Although the radiocarbon date is inconclusive, Rae argued that on the basis of probability it suggested that the last ice sheet had not deposited the till. Amino acid epimerization analyses suggest that shells in the till are no younger than the last interglacial, which has also been taken to support the hypothesis that the maximum age of the till is Early Devensian, with ice cover from 80-60 ka (Bowen and Sykes, 1988; Bowen, 1989; Bowen, 1991). As this is the youngest till on Stronsay and as the Orkney is now known to have been glaciated in the Late Devensian in the period from 32-16 ka (Phillips et al, 2008), these interpretations are no longer tenable. The till dates from the last glaciation yet includes a suite of older shells.

Ice over Orkney

Key Geomorphological Sites

  • Significance: a coastline noted for its Devonian geology and coastal geomorphology

  • Significance: this bay lies adjacent to Skara Brae and provides evidence of the interaction between coastal processes and human disturbance between 6600 and 4400 radiocarbon years ago. The settlement first re-emerged from the dunes after a storm in 1850.

  • Significance: this site provides evidence for changing ice-flow conditions during the last ice sheet glaciation

  • Significance: the construction of the Churchill Barriers started in 1940 and led to a fundamental change in the pattern of tidal flow around Scapa Flow. A range of coastal landforms have been created subsequently which illustrate the fundamental control of coastal configuration on the transport and deposition of sand.

  • Significance: Rackwick lies at the southern end of two major glacial breaches on Hoy. Its well-developed moraines indicate that at the close of the last glaciation two lobes of ice retreated northwards at a time when the Pentland Firth was probably still occupied by ice.

  • Significance: The Old Man is the tallest sea stack in Britain, 137 m high

  • Significance: a superb corrie formed at an unusually low elevation that was last occupied by a small glacier only 11,000 years ago

  • Significance: Ward Hill provides examples of a range of active and fossil periglacial landforms. As the highest point on Orkney it also provides evidence of the thickness of the last ice sheet

  • Significance: the site of a former small corrie glacier on Hoy

  • Significance: the site of a small corrie glacier during the Loch Lomond Stadial

  • Significance: a raised beach deposit at 6-12 m asl buried by till

  • Significance: a possible Scandinavian erratic on Orkney.

  • Significance: a peat deposit with willow boles formed 6500 years ago and now lying below sea level

  • Significance: the Kilns of Brin-Novan is an excellent example of an interconnected series of caves, arches and blow-holes which illustrate the sequential development of these features.

  • Significance: this coastal section provides perhaps the best available exposure of the shelly till which is characteristic of the eastern part of Orkney

  • Significance: exceptional cliff scenery and dramatic cliff-top storm deposits