• The lungfish from the Devonian Orcadian Basin are well known and described in great detail in many publications. A new species of dipnoan, Pinalongus saxoni was recently identified from Caithness and was named after Jack Saxon the famous fossil expert from Caithness, Scotland who died in 2005.

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  • In the Orcadian lake, the porolepiforms were fast swimming fish with strong teeth and were the top predators. They are evolutionary closely related to the first vertebrate land animals found in the Upper Devonian. They biggest could reach a length of more than a metre. They are mostly found as loose elements, such as, scales, teeth and head plates, in the sediments indicating a shallow environment. Rarely they are found completely articulated, mostly in sediments indicating lake deposits lacking oxygen.

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  • The tetrapodomorphs (part of the sarcopterigians (Sarcopterygii) or lobe finned fish) played an important role in the Orcadian Basin and eventually the evolution of man.

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  • Ranging from a few centimeters to several meters in length, these fishes were very important inhabitants of the lake system and the rivers. They are all “armoured” with big overlapping bony plates often with many tiny tubercles on the outside.

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  • These mostly small fish appeared in the Silurian period. They were very diverse in the Devonian and disappeared in the end of the Permian Period. They can be distinguished from the other fishes by their bony often ornamented spines supporting the fin web of the fins.

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